Thursday, September 4, 2014

The Java EE ecosystem keeps shrinking

Less than a year ago Oracle announced the Java EE and GlassFish Server Roadmap Update, which defined the end of commercial support for the Oracle Glassfish Server, which is (was) the fully supported release of the GlassFish Server Open Source Edition. In the last few months there has been plenty of comments about this move, some of the most remarkable are:
The motivation around this move are probably about Oracle not being keen on supporting two full app server implementations, Glassfish and Weblogic, which apparently makes sense from a commercial point of view. The problem here is that the two products are very different, and if you liked Glassfish usually hated Weblogic (but has somebody ever genuinely liked Weblogic anyway?). Glassfish is a lightweight, easy to install, fast to start, open source product, with a community around, while Weblogic is IMO one of the most bloated piece of software ever: the two products were addressing two very different Java EE markets, being Weblogic's the most lucrative one.

A reply to community's concerns, apparently from an Oracle representative:
"... GlassFish and WebLogic share quite a bit of code, and that helps with application and configuration portability between the two. So, organizations can continue to develop on GlassFish and leverage that development by deploying on WebLogic."
This is one of the most laughable sentences I have read in years: can anyone seriously think a company could develop and test in one application server but then deploy in production with another? Can anyone really assert that Glassfish and Weblogic are that similar? Just try to install both and judge yourself: you could start developing your first Glassfish application while Weblogic installer is still downloading...

Glassfish has always been a minor commercial player, but reducing the available options has never been a successful strategy for any ecosystem, and Oracle is supposed to lead this one. Below are the results of this leadership:

If you care about open source but want / need to deploy into a commercially supported Java EE app server, you now have basically only a couple of options left: RedHat's JBoss EAP and Tomtribe's TomEE. Despite both are fine options, pulling out a minor but strategic member doesn't help arresting the progressive shrinking of the Java EE ecosystem, as differentiation and competition are king.

This is a pity, because Java EE is becoming more and more lean and easy.

Wednesday, January 15, 2014

Sales are Good for You

I have just published the below presentation on Slideshare: half it's serious content, half it's just for fun.

Some of my best friends are present or former colleagues, most are developers but many of them are sales or marketing people. I was thinking about describing the often difficult relationship between software developers and sales people since many years now. Maybe I should give a talk about this, one of these days.

I am lucky I had the opportunity to work with very smart people, both on sales or IT, with the exception of some occasional moron, of course.

Hopefully you can recognize some common, funny patterns here.

Saturday, January 4, 2014

Book Review: "Real-time Web Application Development using Vert.x 2.0"

About Vert.x

I am following the evolution of the Vert.x project since its inception and I was expecting to see some books coming about the subject sooner or later. First of all, some explanation on what's Vert.x:
"Vert.x is a lightweight, high performance application platform for the JVM that's designed for modern mobile, web, and enterprise applications."
The product is 100% open source, licensed under the business friendly Apache Software License 2.0 and well documented. The project's founder and main maintainer is Tim Fox, of HornetQ fame.
Vert.x characteristics are nicely summarized in the related Wikipedia entry:
Vert.x is a polyglot event-driven application framework that runs on the Java Virtual Machine.
Similar environments written in other programming languages include Node.js for JavaScriptTwisted for PythonPerl Object Environment for Perllibevent for C and EventMachine for Ruby.
Vert.x exposes the API currently in JavaJavaScriptGroovyRuby and Python.
Scala and Clojure support is on the roadmap.
The application framework includes these features:
  • Polyglot. Application components can be written in Java, JavaScript, Groovy, Ruby or Python.
  • Simple concurrency model. All code is single threaded, freeing from the hassle of multi-threaded programming.
  • Simple, asynchronous programming model for writing truly scalable non-blocking applications.
  • Distributed event bus that spans the client and server side. The event bus even penetrates into in-browser JavaScript allowing to create so-called real-time web applications.
  • Module system and public module repository, to re-use and share components.

Few days ago I decided to purchase a recent book from Packt Publishing about the subject.

The Book

Language : English
Paperback : 122 pages
Release Date : September 2013
ISBN : 1782167951
ISBN 13 : 9781782167952
Author(s) : Tero Parviainen

I bought the eBook format only and I read it in both my iPad and computer screen, especially because the narration is mainly about building a fairly complete Web application, so I wanted to read and experiment at the same time, by entering the code by hand and running it step by step.

Below I provide a short summary of the book' sections and I will write some final comments about it.


The preface introduces clearly the content and objectives of the book
"Real-Time Web Application Development using Vert.x 2.0 will show you how to build a real-time web application with Vert.x. During the course of the book, you will go from the very first "Hello, World" to publishing a fully featured application on the Internet."
The scope is to build an editor with which people can create mind maps collaboratively. So, it is neither a too trivial application, nor something too complex. A good, balanced choice, with the additional bonus of learning a few of jQueryD3 JavaScript library and MongoDB on the road.

What the book covers 

Chapter 1, Getting Started with Vert.x, guides you through the installation of the Vert.x 2.0 platform and its prerequisites. In this chapter, you'll also write your very first Vert.x application: the web equivalent of "Hello, World".

Chapter 2, Developing a Vert.x Web Application, covers the development of a full-fledged Vert.x web application, including both the server and browser components. You will become familiar with the architecture of a typical Vert.x application.

Chapter 3, Integrating with a Database, extends the web application from the previous chapter by adding support for persisting data in a MongoDB database, using one of the available open source Vert.x modules: the MongoDB Persistor.

Chapter 4, Real-time Communication, builds on everything you've learned so far
to deliver the secret sauce: real-time communication. You will develop a real-time, collaborative, browser-based mind map editor.

Chapter 5, Polyglot Development and Modules, presents some of the polyglot features of Vert.x, as well as the development of reusable and distributable modules,
by creating a Java module that is used to save mind maps as PNG images.

Chapter 6, Deploying and Scaling Vert.x, shows how to deploy your Vert.x application on Internet, by setting up a Linux server with continuous deployment. Finally, we discuss the basics of scaling Vert.x for growing amounts of users and data. 

My comments

One might argue that the official Vert.x documentation is already quite comprehensive and this book doesn't add much, but conversely I feel this book allows for a smoother approach to learning, without the need to browse and search too much around the Web site. Maybe somebody with already a working experience with Vert.x wouldn't gain a lot of new knowledge here, at the end I feel the book is more focused on Vert.x beginners, but anyway it contains a good amount of advanced tips to make it valuable for a wide audience.

Vert.x is a polyglot framework, so one can choose among a set of popular programming languages, with even more on the move, but the code in the book is mainly Javascript, also server side. On one hand this seems to restrict a bit the potential audience, as to fully understand the source code and the logic behind the mind map application a decent knowledge of Javascript is advisable, but on the other hand this could be very appealing to node.js developers, as they could immediately compare it with Vert.x. Then, also a client-side Javascript developer can easily follow the content and learn some server-side programming. I'm not sure on my side if I would pick Javascript for developing complex server-side logic, but adopting the same language for both client and server development undoubtedly has its own advantages, as the growing popularity of node.js testifies.

What I especially like in this book is the capacity to explain "full stack" concepts in small, easy steps. You learn about Vert.x and asynchronous message exchanges via the event bus, but also some client side programming techniques in Javascript. The bridge between client and server is built using the SockJS library, which provides real-time, full duplex, client-server communication through HTML5 WebSockets and other fallback mechanisms for older browsers.

Another plus of this book resides in its two last chapters, about modules and deployment. Chapter 5 provides a clear description of distributing and managing Vert.x applications through modules, while Chapter 6 goes into the fundamental topic of real deployment and scaling of Vert.x applications. As Vert.x applications are not distributed as standard Java EE packages, these final chapters are really a bonus and I wish to see more books that include at least some basic information about development, scaling and lifecycle management.


The book is very well written and readable. It is balanced, as it can support both the novice and the expert developer in exploring this excellent Web framework. I can definitely recommend buying it if you want to start studying in deep Vert.x.

Note: I actually bought this book by myself and not asked to review it by Packt or anybody else, so this article reflects my own independent opinion only.


Thursday, June 27, 2013

Apache Maven Starter - my first, little book

Today Packt Publishing has published a little book I have written in the last few months together with Maurizio Pillitu.

The book is titled Apache Maven Starter and it's part of the Instant collection by Packt Publishing. Instant books are concise and focused technical guides, usually no more than 50 or 60 pages, providing the maximum amount of information in the quickest and most effective way.

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.
I accepted the invite to write this book because, despite the huge amount of information already available on this subject, in form of other books and online material, when I started learning Maven I was searching for more concise information. The book actually doesn't aim to be a complete reference, but a place to start from and a collection of pointers to additional information. So, it is the book I wished I could read years ago.
Maven ultimately allows for the automation of the build lifecycle and independence from any IDE. You must always be able to build and test any Java project from the command line, using your favorite editor for coding. It is important to control exactly what libraries get distributed with Java projects and to have a standard project template and build process. 
Instant Apache Maven Starter will concentrate the most useful information into one single, very compact source. 

What you will learn from this book

  • Download, install, and configure Apache Maven with the minimum fuss
  • Make your own Java project templates and reuse them
  • Deploy to Tomcat or run an embedded Tomcat with Maven
  • Perform unit and integration testing with Maven and JUnit
  • Manage dependencies and project coordinates, adopting best practices
  • Create and manage multi-modules projects
  • Use Maven from your favorite IDE: Netbeans, Eclipse, or IDEA

I want to especially thank Maurizio Pillitu and the Packt Publishing editorial team, it has been great to work together guys!

The book is already available on Amazon, Packt and Safari Online.

Thursday, May 30, 2013

Open source products: the big misunderstanding

While reading an article on ZDNet titled "Open source: Its true cost and where it's going awry by Monty Widenius" I think I have realized why most people, even those tightly involved in the open-source ecosystem, are often misunderstanding its business model. In a sentence:
The open source model is about creating collaborations, not building products.
Advocating open source software since the early 90s, from my point of view an open-source business model related to products can be misleading.
"The problem is — I saw this very clearly with MariaDB — I created a company where I took the original people who were creating the product, [but] I couldn't get anybody to fund us," Widenius said.
Before being bought by Sun for an astronomical amount of money (1 billion $), MySQL was profitable but in the range of few tens millions per year. You don't meet every day somebody putting billions on the table...

My question is: what would force a company to pay for a product if they can have it for free? I guess RedHat owners asked themselves the same questions when they practically closed the RHEL product line source code, moving the community toward the Fedora project. And now RedHat is making an huge amount of money from a product that is, by all means, the (almost) closed version of an open source effort.

So, it is really hard to build open source products, like RedHat or Alfresco, for example, because, despite all the efforts to justify a dual licensing model, you cab grasp only a very small percentage of users available to pay for a commercial edition of any open-source software. Stressing the fact that going into production requires paid support can be helpful, but it's very hard to demonstrate where the break-even is. Somebody coud argue: is that product so buggy that I need to pay a lot of money for support? Very few companies have been successful in this.

Instead of selling standalone products, I see an easier path in building solutions and services on top of an open source ecosystem: companies and their developers collaborate in growing a set of tools, frameworks, libraries with an open source development model and communities. This allows to dramatically decrease R&D costs, sharing the benefits. Today I could build a whole enterprise platform with open source software only, from the operating system to middleware and client applications, probably with better quality than a closed counterpart. But, as Widenius seems is learning the hard way, building an open source product and having paying customers is a different story: not impossible, of course, but very hard.
Widenius again: "Open source is successful for OpenStack where you have a consortium of companies that are all putting money into developing it."
Exactly what I mean: join to develop the common parts, share the costs and then compete in selling some unique services. But a stand-alone, open source product, created and supported by a single company, is a different story.